This section contains peer-reviewed research on the subject of GGT as an indicator for all-cause mortality.  Click on the link to view full text articles.

  1. Lee, D.S. et al. Gamma Glutamyl Transferase and Metabolic Syndrome, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality Risk: The Framingham Heart Study. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2006; 1-7.
  2. Dominici, S., Paolicchi, A., Corti, A., Maellaro, E., Pompella, A. Prooxidant Reactions Promoted by Soluble and Cell‐Bound y‐Glutamyltransferase Activity. Methods in Enzymology. 2005; 401, 484-501.
  3. Ruttmann, E. et al. y-Glutamyltransferase as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: an epidemiological investigation in a cohort of 163,944 austrian adults. American Heart Association, Inc. 2005; 2130-2137.
  4. Kazimi-Sherazi, L., Endler, G., Winkler, S., Schickbauer, T., Wagner, O., Marsik, C. Gamma Glutamyltranspeptidase and Long-Term Survival: Is It Just the Liver? Clinical Chemistry 2007, 53:5, 1-7.
  5. Kawamoto, R. et al. Association between Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Level and Prehypertension among Community-Dwelling Men. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 2008; 216, 213-221.
  6. Sakuta, H., Suzuki, T., Yasuda, H., Ito, T. y-Glutamyl Transferase and Metabolic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Internal Medicine 2005; 44:6, 538-541.
  7. Volker, A. Brenner, H., Rothenbacher, D., Zschenderlein, B., Fraisse, E., Fliedner, T. Elevated liver enzyme activity in construction workers: prevalence and impact on early retirement and all-cause mortality. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1998; 71, 405-412.
  8. Hozawa, A. et al. y-Glutamyltransferase predicts cardiovascular death among Japanese women. Atherosclerosis 2007; 194, 498–504.
  9. Kirpich, I. et al. Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: a pilot study. Alcohol 2008; 42, 675-682.
  10. André, P., Balkau, B, Born, C., Charles, M., Eschwège, E. Three-year increase of gamma-glutamyltransferase level and development of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men and women: the D.E.S.I.R. cohort. Diabetologia 2006; 49(11): 2599–2603.


Patents and Publications

  • V.Slesarev and T.Dimitrov, US patent # 7,112,564 ” Biodegradable glucosaminemuramylpeptides for apoptosis modulation” 2007
  • RU patent # 2363490, 2009
  • V.Slesarev and T.Dimitrov, CA patent#2521718, 2009
  • R.Ellithorpe, V.Slesarev, T.Dimitrov, US pat ap# 11/581,623 ” Dietary and      pharmaceutical compositions for management and treatment of oxidative stress” 2007
  • R.Ellithorpe, V.Slesarev, T.Dimitrov US Pat Ap# 10/794,285, 2005
  • V.Slesarev, R.Ellithorpe, and T.Dimitrov “Dietary management of liver oxidation      in patients with hepatitis C”, In Proc., 6th Annual Meeting of European Soc Clin Virology, 24-27 Aug.,2003, Leon, France
  • V.Slesarev, R.Ellithorpe, and T.Dimitrov “New probiotic antioxidants for patients      with hepatitis C”, In Proc., Falk Symp, “Liver Disease:Advances in Treatment and Pevention” Oct 17-19, 2003, Freiburg, Germany
  • B.Pinegin, T.Dimitrov, V.Liovov, V.Slesarev, and M.Khaitov, US Pat Ap# 10/455,123 “Dietary and pharmaceutical compositions for treatment anemia, leukopenia,and thrombocytopenia”, 2003
  • V.Slesarev, R.Ellithorpe, and T.Dimitrov  “New probiotic antioxidants for      treatment chronic heart failure” In Proc., 2nd International Congress      on Heart Disease, Washington, DC, Jul 21-24, 2001
  • V.Slesarev, and T.Dimitrov US Patent # 6,281,191 ” Compositions and method      for treatment hepatitis C”, 2001
  • V.Slesarev US Pat Ap# 09/765,734 “Dietary modulators of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase”, 2001
  • V.Slesarev, R.Ellithorpe, and T.Dimitrov,”Inhibition of systemic TNF alpha cytotoxicity in cancer patients by D-peptidoglycans”, Medical      Oncology, 1998, v.15, 37-43
  • V.Slesarev, US Patent# 5,834,435 , 1998
  • V.Slesarev, R.Ellithorpe and T.Dimitrov, “New cytokine blocker in treatment of      tumor shock” in Proc.North American Symp.on Emergency Medicine, Salt Lake City, 1998
  • V.Slesarev, V.Efimov, A.Oraevsky, and A.Slesarev, PCT Pub#WO97/05889,  Non-specific vaccination by D-aminoacid containing compounds

In Press

A. Slesarev,  R.Ellithorpe, T.Dimitrov, R.Shalwitz, A.Tsyb, S.Koziavkin, V.Slesarev. Probiotic hyperthermia for real time GGT reduction in cancer patients with liver metastasis.

Submitted to “Cancer Research” Journal, 2011. Y. Ishizuka, R.Shalwitz , S.Niida, R. Ellithorpe, T.Dimitrov,  A.Tsyb, and V.Slesarev. Probiotic antioxidants reduce GGT activity in patients with preneoplastic conditions and cancer: implication for treatment malignancy and inflammation.  in press, Medical Oncology, 20